Python for the Web (in 2019)

Last year I wrote about Python for the Web - a boilerplate project to kickoff my web development. It’s been a year since I wrote that post, since then I have started a multitude of projects. Along the way I have had the need need to update and upgrade the project structure, as well as some of the requirements.

The original GitHub project has been updated with these changes. So, what has changed?

Project structure

A few things worth mentioning: The config file(s) now live in the config directory, this allows for easier config loading via the file:

import sys

if "pytest" in sys.modules:
    from config.test_config import *
    from config.config import *

As you can see, I am loading a different config when running under pytest - yes, the project now includes tests too, which can be found in the tests dir. The tests are very basic and serve purely as examples to kickoff more serious testing, but they will hopefully demonstrate how to bootstrap a test database:

def test_general_ping_success():

    response = testing_app.get("/api/general/ping")
    assert response.status_code == 200

Notice the decorator wrapping the test function. It takes a tuple of models as an argument to create a new database for each individual test:

def with_test_db(models: tuple):
    def decorator(func):
        def test_db_closure(*args, **kwargs):
            test_db = PostgresqlDatabase(SQL_DATABASE, user=SQL_USER, password=SQL_PASSWORD, host=SQL_HOST)
            with test_db.bind_ctx(models):
                    func(*args, **kwargs)

        return test_db_closure

    return decorator

This is a really nice decorator for testing with Flask and Peewee. I have to thank David Love (one of my colleagues) for this one. You can read more about it in his own blog post.

The create_app function in web/ now takes a config_name parameter. This makes it easier to load different Flask configs depending on the environment: development, testing and production. The create_app function has also been modified to follow an app factory.

Lastly, the web/views directory includes a blueprint file, where all the blueprints now reside:

from flask import Blueprint

api_blueprint = Blueprint("api", __name__, url_prefix="/api")

public_blueprint = Blueprint("public", __name__)

This is purely for better code organization. I find that it helps having all the blueprints in the same file, above everything else the views directory - this avoids some ugly code down the line, such as imports at the end of files.


A lot of the old libraries are still being used: Flask, uWSGi, Peewee, Logzero and Sentry.

Most have been updated, though. Flask has finally reached version 1.0. Peewee has been updated to the latest version and continues to grow as my prefered way to handle SQL in Python (huge shout-out to coleifer). Sentry has a flashy new API, a major improvement over the last version.

Fire and Arrow have been replaced with docopt and Pendulum, respectfully.


I started running into a few issues with Fire, especially in regards to flag parsing.

I managed to get around these issues, but eventually stumbled upon docopt and immediately fell in love with it. It doesn’t take long to learn the so called command-line interface description language, it’s very intuitive if you are used to well documented CLI tools.

The example CLI script has been updated.


I didn’t mention Arrow in my previous post, but at the time it was my preferred date/time library.

I discovered Pendulum in 2018, and even though I don’t necessarily have much of a complaint about Arrow, I have to say the Pendulum API just feels a lot better, natural and intuitive. I’ve since replaced Arrow in all of my codebases.


Migrations are something I have always disregarded, simply because I had never been able to find a solution that suited my needs.

I really dislike most migration tools that are out there in the wild. They are usually over complicated, tied to other frameworks, and typically abstract SQL away - which I am really not a fan of.

In 2018 I was introduced to Flyway. It’s exactly what I was looking for. All it needs is a migrations directory and a basic config file. The migration files are pure SQL, flyway keeps track of what files need to run by creating a table in your database (flyway_schema_history).

All you need to do is run flyway migrate, or if you want to implement it on an existing database, generate your initial schema file and run flyway baseline.

Migrations via flyway can now be found under the migrations dir. Some more details on the flyway configuration are included in the README.

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